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Bowcock, A. M. et al. High resolution of human evolutionary trees with polymorphic microsatellites. Nature. Volume 368 March 31, 1994: 455 - 457.

Bräuer, Günter and Smith, Fred H. eds. Continuity or Replacement. Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, Publishers, 1992.

Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. Genes, Peoples, and Languages. Scientific American. Nov 1991: 104 - 110.

Chamberlain, A.T. Chronological Framework for Human Origins. World Archaeology. Volume 23 number 2, 1991: 137 - 146.

Hammer, Michael F., and Zegura, Stephen L. The role of the Y chromosome in Human Evolutionary Studies. Evolutionary Anthropology. Volume 5 number 4 1996: 116 - 134.

Harpending, Henry C. et al. The Genetic Structure of Ancient Human Populations. Current Anthropology. Volume 34, number 4, 1993: 483 - 496.

von Haeseler, Arndt et al. The genetical archaeology of the human genome. Nature Genetics. Volume 14, Oct, 1996: 135 - 140.

Kluger, Jeffrey. Not so Extinct After All. Science. Volume 148, number 28, 1996.

Lahr, Marta Mirazon and Foley, Robert. Multiple Dispersals and Modern Human Origins. Evolutionary Anthropology. Volume 3, number 2, 1994: 48 - 60.

Mitchell, R. J. Y-chromosome-specific Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs): Relevance to Human Evolution and Human Variation. American Journal of Human Biology. Volume 8, number 5, 1996: 573 - 586.

Perna, Nicole T. et al. Alu Insertion Polymorphisms: a New Type of Marker for Human Population Studies. Human Biology. Volume 64, number 5, 1992: 641 - 648.

Relethford, John H. Ancient Differences in Population Size can Mimic a Recent African Origin of Modern Humans. Current Anthropology. Volume 36, number 4, 1995: 667 - 674.

Sherry, Stephen T. et al. Mismatch Distributions of mtDNA Reveal Recent Human Population Expansions. Human Biology. Volume 66, number 5, 1994: 761 - 775.

Stoneking, Mark. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Human Evolution. Human Genome Evolution. 263 - 281.

Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 1996. New York: Wiley-Liss, 1996.

Internet resources: Anth 1101 Fall 1997 page

The Bomis ring/Evolution for Biology Students

The Bomis ring/The Long Foreground: Human Prehistory

The Human Prehistory page

Joanna Mountain's Homepage

The LLNL Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Homepage (genome/html/alu.html)

The Talk-Origins Archive

Lectures from: Dr. Kenneth Weiss and Dr. Graham Thomas. Anthropology/Biology 460. Dr. Jeffrey Kurland. Anthropology 021. Dr. Dean Snow. Anthropology 002 The Matson Museum of Anthropology (University Park, PA) was also utilized.

In addition one article from the Science Times section in the New York Times was used and referenced briefly; however this article could not be found in preparation of this paper.

going back?

the beginning again: